Olaus Murie, born in 1889, in Moorhead, Minnesota, was an important force in early wildlife ecology and conservation. He worked for the U.S. Biological Survey conducting pioneering studies, often times with his wife, Mardy, in Hudson Bay, Alaska, Wyoming, and around the world. Murie stands out among biologists working during the first half of the century as an ecologist in the time when ecology did not yet exist. His system-based form of game management was controversial within the USBS, but Murie persevered in his efforts for conservation. In 1945, Murie was named Director of the Wilderness Society. His efforts helped to bring about creation of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and passage of the Wilderness Act. In 1959, Murie was awarded the prestigious Audubon Medal for his dedication to scientific excellence and conservation.