Refuge Establishment Dates

Refuge Name State Year
Established
PELICAN ISLAND NWR FL 1903
BRETON NWR LA 1904
STUMP LAKE NWR ND 1905
WICHITA MOUNTAINS NWR OK 1905
HURON NWR MI 1905
PASSAGE KEY NWR FL 1905
SHELL KEYS NWR LA 1907
THREE ARCH ROCKS NWR OR 1907
COPALIS NWR WA 1907
FLATTERY ROCKS NWR WA 1907
QUILLAYUTE NEEDLES NWR WA 1907
LOWER KLAMATH NWR CA 1908
KEY WEST NWR FL 1908
MALHEUR NWR OR 1908
CHASE LAKE NWR ND 1908
PINE ISLAND NWR FL 1908
MATLACHA PASS NWR FL 1908
ISLAND BAY NWR FL 1908
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS NWR HI 1909
COLD SPRINGS NWR OR 1909
DEER FLAT NWR ID 1909
MINIDOKA NWR ID 1909
CULEBRA NWR US 1909
FARALLON NWR CA 1909
NATIONAL BISON RANGE MT 1909
CLEAR LAKE NWR CA 1911
FORT NIOBRARA NWR NE 1912
GREEN BAY NWR WI 1912
GRAVEL ISLAND NWR WI 1913
ANAHO ISLAND NWR NV 1913
NATIONAL ELK REFUGE WY 1914
DUNGENESS NWR WA 1915
MILLE LACS NWR MN 1915
BIG LAKE NWR AR 1915
NORTH PLATTE NWR NE 1916
CALOOSAHATCHEE NWR FL 1921
NINE-PIPE NWR MT 1921
PABLO NWR MT 1921
SULLYS HILL NAT. GAME PRESERVE ND 1921
BLACKBEARD ISLAND NWR GA 1924
UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER NWFR IL 1925
JOHNSTON ISLAND NWR US 1926
SAVANNAH NWR GA 1927
MCKAY CREEK NWR OR 1927
UPPER KLAMATH NWR OR 1928
PATHFINDER NWR WY 1928
TULE LAKE NWR CA 1928
BEAR RIVER MIG. BIRD REFUGE UT 1929
CEDAR KEYS NWR FL 1929
BENTON LAKE NWR MT 1929
SALT PLAINS NWR OK 1930
CAPE ROMAIN NWR SC 1930
WOLF ISLAND NWR GA 1930
SONNY BONO SALTON SEA NWR CA 1930
ST. MARKS NWR FL 1931
CRESCENT LAKE NWR NE 1931
FALLON NWR NV 1931
HUTTON LAKE NWR WY 1932
BAMFORTH NWR WY 1932
LONG LAKE NWR ND 1932
SWANQUARTER NWR NC 1932
BLACKWATER NWR MD 1933
MATTAMUSKEET NWR NC 1934
TREMPEALEAU NWR WI 1935
DES LACS NWR ND 1935
J. CLARK SALYER NWR ND 1935
LAKE OTIS NWR ND 1935
SHEYENNE LAKE NWR ND 1935
ARROWWOOD NWR ND 1935
SAND LAKE NWR SD 1935
LACREEK NWR SD 1935
LOSTWOOD NWR ND 1935
MEDICINE LAKE NWR MT 1935
LAKE ANDES NWR SD 1935
SQUAW CREEK NWR MO 1935
CHAUTAUQUA NWR IL 1935
WAUBAY NWR SD 1935
RED ROCK LAKES NWR MT 1935
OREGON ISLANDS NWR OR 1935
LAKE ISOM NWR TN 1935
SENEY NWR MI 1935
VALENTINE NWR NE 1935
UPPER SOURIS NWR ND 1935
WHITE RIVER NWR AR 1935
HART MTN. NAT. ANTELOPE REFUGE OR 1935
ROSE LAKE NWR ND 1935
SCHOOL SECTION LAKE NWR ND 1935
MULESHOE NWR TX 1935
RICE LAKE NWR MN 1935
DELTA NWR LA 1935
TAMARAC NWR MN 1936
BOWDOIN NWR MT 1936
KELLYS SLOUGH NWR ND 1936
WOOD LAKE NWR ND 1936
BITTER LAKE NWR NM 1936
DESERT NATIONAL WILDLIFE RANGE NV 1936
SWAN LAKE NWR MO 1936
TEWAUKON NWR ND 1936
STORM LAKE NWR ND 1936
ARDOCH NWR ND 1936
TURNBULL NWR WA 1936
WILD RICE LAKE NWR ND 1936
WILLAPA NWR WA 1936
CAMAS NWR ID 1936
OKEFENOKEE NWR GA 1936
YAZOO NWR MS 1936
CHARLES M. RUSSELL NWR MT 1936
PATUXENT RESEARCH REFUGE MD 1936
BOSQUE DEL APACHE NWR NM 1936
MOOSEHORN NWR ME 1937
SACRAMENTO NWR CA 1937
UNION SLOUGH NWR IA 1937
BOMBAY HOOK NWR DE 1937
AGASSIZ NWR MN 1937
SILVER LAKE NWR ND 1937
PEA ISLAND NWR NC 1938
BEAR BUTTE NWR SD 1937
MONTEZUMA NWR NY 1937
LAKE THIBADEAU NWR MT 1937
RABB LAKE NWR ND 1937
LACASSINE NWR LA 1937
RUBY LAKE NWR NV 1937
ARANSAS NWR TX 1937
SABINE NWR LA 1937
BLACK COULEE NWR MT 1938
BACK BAY NWR VA 1938
HEWITT LAKE NWR MT 1938
TYBEE NWR SC 1938
WHEELER NWR AL 1938
WEST SISTER ISLAND NWR OH 1938
CAPE MEARES NWR OR 1938
GREAT WHITE HERON NWR FL 1938
PIEDMONT NWR GA 1939
KOFA NWR AZ 1939
NECEDAH NWR WI 1939
CAROLINA SANDHILLS NWR SC 1939
LITTLE PEND OREILLE NWR WA 1939
APPERT LAKE NWR ND 1939
BUFFALO LAKE NWR ND 1939
BONE HILL NWR ND 1939
CANFIELD LAKE NWR ND 1939
DAKOTA LAKE NWR ND 1939
CAMP LAKE NWR ND 1939
JOHNSON LAKE NWR ND 1939
FLORENCE LAKE NWR ND 1939
HALF-WAY LAKE NWR ND 1939
HUTCHINSON LAKE NWR ND 1939
LORDS LAKE NWR ND 1939
LOST LAKE NWR ND 1939
LITTLE GOOSE NWR ND 1939
BRUMBA NWR ND 1939
COTTONWOOD LAKE NWR ND 1939
HIDDENWOOD NWR ND 1939
LAKE ILO NWR ND 1939
LAKE NETTIE NWR ND 1939
MAPLE RIVER NWR ND 1939
LAKE GEORGE NWR ND 1939
MCLEAN NWR ND 1939
LAMBS LAKE NWR ND 1939
LAKE ZAHL NWR ND 1939
LAKE PATRICIA NWR ND 1939
SHELL LAKE NWR ND 1939
PLEASANT LAKE NWR ND 1939
ROCK LAKE NWR ND 1939
SIBLEY LAKE NWR ND 1939
HOBART LAKE NWR ND 1939
SUSQUEHANNA NWR MD 1939
EDWIN B. FORSYTHE NWR NJ 1939
STEWART LAKE NWR ND 1939
LAKE ALICE NWR ND 1940
NOXUBEE NWR MS 1940
CABEZA PRIETA NWR AZ 1940
HAVASU NWR CA 1941
SAN ANDRES NWR NM 1941
HORICON NWR WI 1941
PRETTY ROCK NWR ND 1941
SUNBURST LAKE NWR ND 1941
SPRINGWATER NWR ND 1941
WHITE LAKE NWR ND 1941
TOMAHAWK NWR ND 1941
SNYDER LAKE NWR ND 1941
STONEY SLOUGH NWR ND 1941
WILLOW LAKE NWR ND 1941
WINTERING RIVER NWR ND 1941
IMPERIAL NWR AZ 1941
LAKE MASON NWR MT 1941
REELFOOT NWR KY 1941
CREEDMAN COULEE NWR MT 1941
KENAI NWR AK 1941
CHASSAHOWITZKA NWR FL 1941
PARKER RIVER NWR MA 1941
SANTEE NWR SC 1942
HALFBREED LAKE NWR MT 1942
LAMESTEER NWR MT 1942
HAILSTONE NWR MT 1942
MISSISQUOI NWR VT 1943
CHINCOTEAGUE NWR VA 1943
SANTA ANA NWR TX 1943
COLUSA NWR CA 1944
GREAT MEADOWS NWR MA 1944
MONOMOY NWR MA 1944
MINGO NWR MO 1944
COLUMBIA NWR WA 1944
SLADE NWR ND 1944
SUTTER NWR CA 1945
J.N. 'DING' DARLING NWR FL 1945
TENNESSEE NWR TN 1945
TISHOMINGO NWR OK 1946
HAGERMAN NWR TX 1946
LAGUNA ATASCOSA NWR TX 1946
MICHIGAN ISLANDS NWR MI 1947
WERTHEIM NWR NY 1947
GREAT RIVER NWR MO 1947
MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER NWR MO 1947
PORT LOUISA NWR IA 1947
TWO RIVERS NWR MO 1947
CRAB ORCHARD NWR IL 1947
STILLWATER NWR NV 1948
PINELLAS NWR FL 1951
ART MARSHALL LOXAHATCHEE NWR FL 1951
MERCED NWR CA 1951
MONTE VISTA NWR CO 1952
PRESQUILE NWR VA 1953
SADDLE MOUNTAIN NWR WA 1953
SHIAWASSEE NWR MI 1953
NATIONAL KEY DEER REFUGE FL 1954
KIRWIN NWR KS 1954
MARTIN NWR MD 1954
ELIZABETH A. MORTON NWR NY 1954
QUIVIRA NWR KS 1955
MCNARY NWR WA 1955
AUDUBON NWR ND 1956
HOLLA BEND NWR AR 1957
IROQUOIS NWR NY 1958
KLAMATH MARSH NWR OR 1958
CATAHOULA NWR LA 1958
BUFFALO LAKE NWR TX 1958
PIXLEY NWR CA 1958
WAR HORSE NWR MT 1958
DESOTO NWR IA 1958
FISH SPRINGS NWR UT 1959
ERIE NWR PA 1959
KERN NWR CA 1960
GREAT SWAMP NWR NJ 1960
MODOC NWR CA 1960
OURAY NWR UT 1960
IZEMBEK NWR AK 1960
SAN JUAN ISLANDS NWR WA 1960
MACKAY ISLAND NWR NC 1960
WAPANOCCA NWR AR 1961
WASHITA NWR OK 1961
OTTAWA NWR OH 1961
WYANDOTTE NWR MI 1961
MOODY NWR TX 1961
HARRIS NECK NWR GA 1962
DELEVAN NWR CA 1962
CROSS CREEKS NWR TN 1962
EASTERN NECK NWR MD 1962
ANAHUAC NWR TX 1963
JOHN HEINZ TINICUM NWR PA 1963
ALAMOSA NWR CO 1963
PAHRANAGAT NWR NV 1963
PRIME HOOK NWR DE 1963
MERRITT ISLAND NWR FL 1963
LAKE WOODRUFF NWR FL 1963
CHOCTAW NWR AL 1964
LEE METCALF NWR MT 1964
TOPPENISH NWR WA 1964
PEE DEE NWR NC 1964
WILLIAM L. FINLEY NWR OR 1964
CLARENCE CANNON NWR MO 1964
CEDAR ISLAND NWR NC 1964
CIBOLA NWR AZ 1964
KOOTENAI NWR ID 1964
EUFAULA NWR AL 1964
HATCHIE NWR TN 1964
CEDAR POINT NWR OH 1964
ANKENY NWR OR 1965
CONBOY LAKE NWR WA 1965
GRAYS LAKE NWR ID 1965
BROWNS PARK NWR CO 1965
SHERBURNE NWR MN 1965
BASKETT SLOUGH NWR OR 1965
SEEDSKADEE NWR WY 1965
RIDGEFIELD NWR WA 1966
LAS VEGAS NWR NM 1966
MAXWELL NWR NM 1966
FLINT HILLS NWR KS 1966
MUSCATATUCK NWR IN 1966
BRAZORIA NWR TX 1966
RACHEL CARSON NWR ME 1966
SAN LUIS NWR CA 1967
ARAPAHO NWR CO 1967
UL BEND NWR MT 1967
TARGET ROCK NWR NY 1967
ST. VINCENT NWR FL 1968
BEAR LAKE NWR ID 1968
HOBE SOUND NWR FL 1968
SEATUCK NWR NY 1968
GRULLA NWR NM 1968
SAN BERNARD NWR TX 1968
AMAGANSETT NWR NY 1968
OYSTER BAY NWR NY 1968
BUCK ISLAND NWR US 1969
FISHERMAN ISLAND NWR VA 1969
MASON NECK NWR VA 1969
UMATILLA NWR OR 1969
WASSAW NWR GA 1969
NOMANS LAND ISLAND NWR MA 1970
NINIGRET NWR RI 1970
SACHUEST POINT NWR RI 1970
SEQUOYAH NWR OK 1970
WALLOPS ISLAND NWR VA 1971
CONSCIENCE POINT NWR NY 1971
ST. JOHNS NWR FL 1971
JULIA BUTLER HANSEN REFUGE WA 1971
LEWIS AND CLARK NWR OR 1972
PLUM TREE ISLAND NWR VA 1972
WAPACK NWR NH 1972
ATTWATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN NWR TX 1972
SEAL ISLAND NWR ME 1972
THACHER ISLAND NWR MA 1972
PEARL HARBOR NWR HI 1972
MEREDOSIA NWR IL 1972
HANALEI NWR HI 1972
GREAT DISMAL SWAMP NWR VA 1973
POND ISLAND NWR ME 1973
HUMBOLDT BAY NWR CA 1973
HULEIA NWR HI 1973
NANTUCKET NWR MA 1973
SWAN RIVER NWR MT 1973
SALINAS RIVER NWR CA 1973
OCCOQUAN BAY NWR VA 1973
ROSE ATOLL NWR US 1973
FRANKLIN ISLAND NWR ME 1973
SUPAWNA MEADOWS NWR NJ 1973
BLOCK ISLAND NWR RI 1973
NANSEMOND NWR VA 1973
SEVILLETA NWR NM 1973
SAN PABLO BAY NWR CA 1974
NISQUALLY NWR WA 1974
CABO ROJO NWR US 1974
OXBOW NWR MA 1974
BAKER ISLAND NWR US 1974
HOWLAND ISLAND NWR US 1974
JARVIS ISLAND NWR US 1974
SEAL BEACH NWR CA 1974
PETIT MANAN NWR ME 1974
EGMONT KEY NWR FL 1974
TRUSTOM POND NWR RI 1974
D. EDWARDS SAN FRAN. BAY NWR CA 1974
HOPPER MOUNTAIN NWR CA 1974
OPTIMA NWR OK 1975
HILLSIDE NWR MS 1975
KARL E. MUNDT NWR SD 1975
D'ARBONNE NWR LA 1975
FELSENTHAL NWR AR 1975
BIG STONE NWR MN 1975
ELLICOTT SLOUGH NWR CA 1975
MISSISSIPPI SANDHILL CRANE NWR MS 1975
PINCKNEY ISLAND NWR SC 1975
KAKAHAIA NWR HI 1976
MINNESOTA VALLEY NWR MN 1976
JAMES CAMPBELL NWR HI 1976
DESECHEO NWR US 1976
MORGAN BRAKE NWR MS 1977
GREEN CAY NWR US 1977
PANTHER SWAMP NWR MS 1978
SHELDON NWR OR 1978
BEAR VALLEY NWR OR 1978
SAUTA CAVE NWR AL 1978
UPPER OUACHITA NWR LA 1978
BECHAROF NWR AK 1978
TEXAS POINT NWR TX 1978
FEATHERSTONE NWR VA 1978
LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY NWR TX 1979
BON SECOUR NWR AL 1979
FOX RIVER NWR WI 1979
LOWER SUWANNEE NWR FL 1979
CROCODILE LAKE NWR FL 1979
GRASSLANDS WMA CA 1979
MOAPA VALLEY NWR NV 1979
MCFADDIN NWR TX 1980
INNOKO NWR AK 1980
KANUTI NWR AK 1980
BUTTE SINK WMA CA 1980
ANTIOCH DUNES NWR CA 1980
BANKS LAKE NWR GA 1980
LOWER HATCHIE NWR TN 1980
CROSS ISLAND NWR ME 1980
KIRTLANDS WARBLER WMA MI 1980
MATHEWS BRAKE NWR MS 1980
WATERCRESS DARTER NWR AL 1980
CASTLE ROCK NWR CA 1980
OVERFLOW NWR AR 1980
ALASKA MARITIME NWR AK 1980
KODIAK NWR AK 1980
ALASKA PENINSULA NWR AK 1980
ARCTIC NWR AK 1980
KOYUKUK NWR AK 1980
NOWITNA NWR AK 1980
SELAWIK NWR AK 1980
TETLIN NWR AK 1980
TOGIAK NWR AK 1980
YUKON DELTA NWR AK 1980
YUKON FLATS NWR AK 1980
TIJUANA SLOUGH NWR CA 1980
BOGUE CHITTO NWR LA 1981
FERN CAVE NWR AL 1981
SAN BERNARDINO NWR AZ 1982
PROTECTION ISLAND NWR WA 1982
BLUE RIDGE NWR CA 1982
BANDON MARSH NWR OR 1983
BIG BOGGY NWR TX 1983
CRYSTAL RIVER NWR FL 1983
MASSASOIT NWR MA 1983
HARBOR ISLAND NWR MI 1983
PIERCE NWR WA 1983
ALLIGATOR RIVER NWR NC 1984
ASH MEADOWS NWR NV 1984
EASTERN SHORE OF VIRGINIA NWR VA 1984
CURRITUCK NWR NC 1984
SANDY POINT NWR US 1984
KILAUEA POINT NWR HI 1984
TENSAS RIVER NWR LA 1985
STEWART B. MCKINNEY NWR CT 1985
BUENOS AIRES NWR AZ 1985
BITTER CREEK NWR CA 1985
CHICKASAW NWR TN 1985
WILLOW CREEK-LURLINE WMA CA 1985
COACHELLA VALLEY NWR CA 1985
OZARK PLATEAU NWR OK 1985
HAKALAU FOREST NWR HI 1985
STEIGERWALD LAKE NWR WA 1986
CACHE RIVER NWR AR 1986
ATCHAFALAYA NWR LA 1986
LITTLE SANDY NWR TX 1986
LITTLE RIVER NWR OK 1987
JOHN HAY NWR NH 1987
PILOT KNOB NWR MO 1987
SAN JOAQUIN RIVER NWR CA 1987
MIDWAY ATOLL NWR US 1988
LAKE OPHELIA NWR LA 1988
SWEETWATER MARSH NWR CA 1988
SUNKHAZE MEADOWS NWR ME 1988
CAMERON PRAIRIE NWR LA 1988
HAMDEN SLOUGH NWR MN 1989
LOGAN CAVE NWR AR 1989
FLORIDA PANTHER NWR FL 1989
JOHN H. CHAFEE NWR RI 1989
CAPE MAY NWR NJ 1989
LAGUNA CARTAGENA NWR US 1989
SACRAMENTO RIVER NWR CA 1989
GRAND BAY NWR MS 1989
BOND SWAMP NWR GA 1989
DRIFTLESS AREA NWR IA 1989
ST. CATHERINE CREEK NWR MS 1990
BAYOU SAUVAGE NWR LA 1990
FRANZ LAKE NWR WA 1990
POCOSIN LAKES NWR NC 1990
CYPRESS CREEK NWR IL 1990
GRAYS HARBOR NWR WA 1990
ACE BASIN NWR SC 1990
ROANOKE RIVER NWR NC 1990
OHIO RIVER ISLANDS NWR PA 1990
DAHOMEY NWR MS 1991
TALLAHATCHIE NWR MS 1991
NESTUCCA BAY NWR OR 1991
JAMES RIVER NWR VA 1991
NEAL SMITH NWR IA 1991
ARCHIE CARR NWR FL 1991
OZARK CAVEFISH NWR MO 1991
NORTH CENTRAL VALLEY WMA CA 1991
SILETZ BAY NWR OR 1991
RYDELL NWR MN 1992
BAYOU COCODRIE NWR LA 1992
WALLKILL RIVER NWR NJ 1992
BALCONES CANYONLANDS NWR TX 1992
GRAND COTE NWR LA 1992
MARIN ISLANDS NWR CA 1992
MORTENSON LAKE NWR WY 1992
TWO PONDS NWR CO 1992
MARAIS DES CYGNES NWR KS 1992
GREAT BAY NWR NH 1992
ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL NWR CO 1992
LAKE UMBAGOG NWR NH 1992
HANDY BRAKE NWR LA 1992
KEALIA POND NWR HI 1992
TUALATIN RIVER NWR OR 1992
BILL WILLIAMS RIVER NWR AZ 1993
LESLIE CANYON NWR AZ 1993
DEEP FORK NWR OK 1993
CRANE MEADOWS NWR MN 1993
BALD KNOB NWR AR 1993
GUAM NWR US 1993
COKEVILLE MEADOWS NWR WY 1993
EMIQUON NWR IL 1993
TRINITY RIVER NWR TX 1994
LAKE WALES RIDGE NWR FL 1994
CANAAN VALLEY NWR WV 1994
POND CREEK NWR AR 1994
PATOKA RIVER NWR IN 1994
BIG MUDDY NFWR MO 1994
STONE LAKES NWR CA 1994
BIG BRANCH MARSH NWR LA 1994
MASHPEE NWR MA 1995
SAN DIEGO NWR CA 1996
MANDALAY NWR LA 1996
RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER VALLEY NWR VA 1996
TEN THOUSAND ISLANDS NWR FL 1996
KEY CAVE NWR AL 1997
BLACKFOOT VALLEY WMA MT 1997
BLACK BAYOU LAKE NWR LA 1997
BOYER CHUTE NWR NE 1997
SILVIO O. CONTE NFWR MA 1997
WACCAMAW NWR SC 1997
CLARKS RIVER NWR KY 1998
AROOSTOOK NWR ME 1998
COLORADO RIVER WMA UT 1998
SHAWANGUNK GRASSLANDS NWR NY 1999
LOST TRAIL NWR MT 1999
NAVASSA ISLAND NWR US 1999
WHITTLESEY CREEK NWR WI 1999
JOHN W. & LOUISE SEIER NWR NE 10/26/1999
NORTH DAKOTA WMA ND 2/25/2000
CAT ISLAND NWR LA 5/30/2000
BIG OAKS NWR IN 6/30/2000
GUADALUPE-NIPOMO DUNES NWR CA 8/1/2000
NORTHERN TALLGRASS PRAIRIE NWR MN 9/15/2000
CADDO LAKE NWR TX 10/21/2000
DAKOTA TALLGRASS PRAIRIE WMA SD 12/19/2000
OAHU FOREST NWR HI 12/21/2000
KINGMAN REEF NWR U.S. MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS 1/18/2001
PALMYRA ATOLL NWR U.S. MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS 1/18/2001
COLDWATER RIVER NWR MS 1/30/2001
VIEQUES NWR PUERTO RICO 5/1/2001
ASSABET RIVER NWR MA 7/8/2001
BAYOU TECHE NWR LA 10/31/2001
DETROIT RIVER INTERNATIONAL REFUGE MI 12/21/2001
RED RIVER NWR LA 8/22/2002
CAHABA RIVER NWR AL 9/25/2002
BACA NWR CO 4/10/2003
MOUNTAIN LONGLEAF NWR AL 5/29/2003
HOLT COLLIER NWR MS 1/23/2004
THEODORE ROOSEVELT NWR MS 1/23/2004
GLACIAL RIDGE NWR MN 10/26/2004
NECHES RIVER NWR TX 8/23/2006
ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT CONSERVATION AREA MT 9/13/2006
ROCKY FLATS NWR CO 7/12/2007
MARIANA ARC OF FIRE NWR U.S. MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS 1/16/2009
MARIANA TRENCH NWR U.S. MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS 1/16/2009
WAKE ATOL NWR U.S. MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS 1/16/2009
TULARE BASIN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA CA 3/22/2010
CHERRY VALLEY NWR PA 10/18/2010

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service considers the establishment date of a National Wildlife Refuge to be the later of the authorizing date and first tract acquired.