BIRD KILLS AT TOWERS AND OTHER HUMAN-MADE STRUCTURES:
AN ANNOTATED PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY (1960-1998)By: John L. Trapp mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Migratory Bird Management <http//www.fws.gov/r9mbmo> Arlington, Virginia 22203 (907) 358-1821
Last Revised: 10 June 1998
The purpose of this document is to increase public awareness of the potential
impacts of towers and other human-made structures by highlighting some of the
pertinent literature on the subject. The bibliography focuses primarily on
collisions with communication towers, lighted buildings, and (to a lesser
degree) windows. No effort has been made to cover collisions with power lines or
wind turbines, topics that have been addressed by Bevanger (1994) and Hebert et
Previous bibliographies on the subject of bird collisions with human-made
objects have been prepared by Weir (1976), Avery et al. (1978), Avery et al.
(1980), Hebert et al. (1995), and the National Wind Technology Center (n.d.).
This document is intended to supplement, not duplicate, these earlier
publications. Of the 125 citations listed below, 83 were published subsequent to
Avery et al. (1980) and 102 were not included in Hebert et al. (1995); 24 of the
citations are to Internet sites.
If you are aware of other references published since 1979 that you think
should be added to this bibliography, please send that information to John L.
Alphabetical Listing by Author
Able, K. P. 1966. Television tower mortality near Louisville [Kentucky]. Kentucky Warbler 42: 27-28.
Mortality of 25 individuals of 14 species (including 13 warblers of 8
species) on 5 nights, 14 September-23 October 1965, at 973-ft WHAS-TV tower in
Floyd County, Indiana, "is apparently the first migrant mortality due to such a
structure in the Louisville region."
Able, K. P. 1968. Connecticut Warblers in the Louisville [Kentucky] area in autumn. Kentucky Warbler 44: 3-4.
Two recent specimens (females collected 22 September 1967 in Jefferson
County; and 7 October 1967 in Floyd County, Indiana--1 of 78 birds killed at
WHAS-TV tower) indicates that species may not be as rare in Kentucky in fall as
paucity of records (1 previous specimen) suggest.
Anonymous. n.d. Towerkill.Com. <http://towerkill.com>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
The stated goal of this site to "serve as an information resource on the
towerkill problem and to promote cooperative solutions for mitigating the
needless slaughter of millions of songbirds every year." A brief historical
overview of the issue is provided, and clickable maps depict the locations of
communication towers of different size classes in each of the 48 contiguous
United States. Also includes a bulletin board feature.
Anonymous. 1998a (29 January). Bad weather causes syracuse bird kill: as many as 10,000 common Lapland Longspurs apparently crashed into radio towers in fog. Wichita [Kansas] Eagle. <http://newslibrary.infi.net/wichita/>. Choose "The Wichita Eagle," click on "Go," scroll to "Newspaper Search," enter "longspur" as a search word, select "1998" as the search year, click on "Search," and scroll to "Search Results." Accessed 9 June 1998.
This synopsis of a 375-word article notes that a combination of fog, snow,
and radio transmission towers near Syracuse, Kansas, was responsible for one of
the State's largest bird kills, when 5,000-10,000 longspurs crashed into guy
wires around the towers as they milled about the clearance lights on 22 January
1998. The complete article is accessible only to registered subscribers of
Anonymous. 1998b (30 January). Mid-America. Kansas City [Kansas] Star. <http://www.kcstar.com/library/library.htm>. Enter "longspur" as a search word, select "Metropolitan" section and "Library '98" search collection, click on "Search," click on text icon, click on "OK," and scroll to "Bird kill." Accessed 8 June 1998.
An estimated 5,000-10,000 Lapland Longspurs were reportedly killed as they
crashed into the guy wires of lighted radio transmission towers near Syracuse,
Kansas. The kill, termed "one of the largest ever in Kansas" by State wildlife
officials, apparently occurred 22 January 1998 when the guy wires were obscured
by fog and blowing snow. Specimens collected will be studied by scientists from
Southwestern College and Kansas State University.
Anonymous. 1998c (20 February). Telecommunications towers affect avian community. WaveGuide. <http://www.cruzio.com/~rbedard/waveguide/birdkill.html>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
Includes full text of message by Bill Evans <email@example.com>
dated 17 February 1998 (Subject: 150 pounds of longspurs). Evans reports an
estimated kill of 5,000-10,000 birds, mostly Lapland Longspurs, in vicinity of
420-ft tower in western Kansas on the night of 22 January 1998 (also see
Anonymous 29 January 1998 and Anonymous 30 January 1998), and reviews impacts of
towers on birds.
Avery, M., P. F. Springer, and J. F. Cassel. 1977. Weather influences on nocturnal bird mortality at a North Dakota tower. Wilson Bull. 89: 291-299.
At a 366-m tower in southeastern North Dakota, most fall losses occurred
under overcast skies, 1972-1973. Rails were killed in relatively equal
proportions on overcast and non-overcast night in both spring and fall, Warblers
were killed in significantly greater numbers on overcast nights in both seasons,
as were fringillids in fall.
Avery, M. L., P. F., Springer, and N. S. Dailey. 1978. Avian mortality at man-made structures: an annotated bibliography. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. FWS/OBS-78/58, 108 pp.
Annotated bibiliography of 853 references pertaining to bird mortality due to
collision and electrocution at human-made structures such as power transmission
lines, radio and TV towers, lighthouses, cooling towers, buildings, and airport
ceilometers. Includes subject, taxonomic, and geographic indexes. Revised in
1980 (see Avery et al. 1980).
Avery, M. L., P. F. Springer, and N. S. Dailey. 1980. Avian mortality at man-made structures: an annotated bibliography (revised). U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. FWS/OBS-80/54, 152 pp.
Compilation of 1,042 references through February 1980, including 189 not in
the original publication (Avery et al. 1978). Includes subject, taxonomic, and
Avise, J. C., and R. L. Crawford. 1981. A matter of lights and death. Nat. Hist. 90: 6-14.
This popular account, which draws heavily on data gathered at the WCTV tower
in Leon County, Florida, emphasizes the beneficial uses made of tower-killed
birds in a variety of scientific investigations.
Ball, L. G., K. Zyskowski, and G. Escalona-Segura. 1995. Recent bird mortality at a Topeka [Kansas] television tower. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. Bull. 46: 33-36.
Summarize 4 major mortality events at a 439-m KTKA-TV tower in Shawnee
County: 919 individuals of 54 species, 25-26 September 1985; 635 individuals of
49 species, 30 September-1 October 1986; 834 individuals of 64 species, 11-12
October 1986; 420 individuals of 45 species, 8-9 October 1994; cumulative totals
of 2,808 individuals of 91 species. Gray Catbird and Sora were the most abundant
species on both September dates, while Orange-crowned Warbler dominated on the
Banks, R. C. 1979. Human-related mortality of birds in the United States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep.--Wildl. 215, 16 pp.
In early 1970s, human activity was estimated to be responsible for death of
ca. 196 million birds/yr, or ca. 1.9% of wild birds of continental U.S. that
died each year. Hunting was the largest direct mortality factor, accounting for
ca. 61% of human-related bird deaths. Collision with human-made objects was the
greatest indirect human cause of avian deaths, accounting for ca. 32% of
Barbour, R. W. 1961. An unusual bird mortality at Lexington [Kentucky]. Kentucky Warbler 37: 55.
Reports tally of 82 birds of 21 species (Red-eyed Vireo most abundant) at
670-ft TV tower in Fayette County, 8 May 1961.
Barkley, R., C. Elk, and J. Palmquist. 1977. Recent TV tower kills at Goodland, Kansas. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. Bull. 28: 10-12.
Of 390 birds of 30 species found dead at 700-ft KLOE-TV tower in Sherman
County, 28-30 August 1976, 40% were Yellow-headed Blackbirds and Wilson's
Barrett, H. B. n.d. Bird kill. <http://www.kwic.com/~pagodavista/birdkill.html>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
Photo depicts a large pile of birds said to have died due to collision with
the Long Point [Ontario] Lighthouse.
Bartolo, B. 1976. Bird kill at [Ohio] TV tower. Redstart 43: 109.
Reports kill of 1,057 birds of at least 39 species (30% Ovenbirds) due to
collision with 1,085-ft WFMJ-TV tower in Youngstown, 18-27 September 1975.
Bevanger, K. 1994. Bird interactions with utility structures: collision and electrocution, causes and mitigating measures. Ibis 136: 412-425.
Although this paper deals specifically with the problems posed by power
lines, there are many parallels with the tower kill issue. An important review
that is worth reading.
Bierly, M. L. 1968. Television tower casualties at Birmingham [Alabama] in 1967. Alabama Birdlife 16: 34-35.
Reports kill of 12 invidiuals of 5 species in spring (1 and 7 May) and 64
individuals of 26 species in fall (13 September-15 November) at 2 towers (WAPI
Bierly, M. L. 1969. 1968 Birmingham [Alabama] tower casualties. Alabama Birdlife 17: 46-49.
Reports total of 36 individuals of 16 species found on 16 of 66 days in
spring (15 March-20 May) and 47 individuals of 21 species found on 27 of 72 days
in fall (5 September-15 November) at 2 towers (WAPI and WBRC). Mourning Warbler
found 15 September is fourth fall record for Mountain region of Alabama.
Bierly, M. L. 1972. Spring 1969 tower casualties in Birmingham [Alabama]. Alabama Birdlife 20(1-2): 3.
Reports total of 44 individuals of 17 species, 15 March-22 May, at 2 towers
(WAPI and WBRC).
Bjorge, R. R. 1987. Bird kill at an oil industry flare stack in northwest Alberta. Canadian Field-Nat. 101: 346-350.
Approximately 3,000 individuals of at least 26 species were found dead within
75 m of a 104-m flare stack in late May 1980. Warblers of 12 species accounted
for 77% of all identified birds, with Yellow Warbler and Blackpoll Warbler the
most abundant. The presence of pulmonary congestion and edema in specimens
examined suggests that death may have been related to stack emissions. Death
from striking the tower or guy wires was unlikely for the majority of
Bohlen, H. D. 1985. Age and sex composition of a TV-tower kill near Springfield [Illinois]. Illinois Birds Birding 1: 61-62.
Broderick, B. 1995 (June). [Why be concerned about light pollution?] RASC [Royal Astronomical Society of Canada] Bulletin. <http://www.rasc.ca/rasc/light/concern.htm>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
Includes second-hand report that, over a period of about 10 years, nearly
23,000 birds were killed by flying into the floodlit smokestacks of Ontario
Hydro's Bath Generating Plant, near Kingston. The problem was resolved by
replacing the floodlights with strobe lights, which are said to "not have such
an attraction for the birds."
Caldwell, L. D., and N. L. Cuthbert. 1963. Bird mortality at television towers near Cadillac, Michigan. Jack-Pine Warbler 41: 80-89.
Report kill of 812 individuals (74% of mortality occurring on 1 date) of 42
species (including 23 warblers, mostly Blackpoll Warbler, Ovenbird, and Magnolia
Warbler) on 8 dates, 26 September-16 October, and mortality of 74 individuals of
27 species (mostly Red-eyed Vireo and Common Yellowthroat) on 15 dates, 22
April-11 June 1962, at WWTV tower, Cadillac. Also report kill of 125 individuals
of 36 species (mostly Red-eyed Vireo and Ovenbird) on 15 dates, 22 April-11 June
1962, at WPBN tower, Harrietta, Michigan. Also provides comparative data from 7
other studies in eastern U.S., 1951-1960.
Caldwell, L. D., and G. J. Wallace. 1966. Collections of migrating birds at Michigan television towers. Jack-Pine Warbler 44: 117-123.
A minimum of 525 individuals of 73 species was killed in spring (1962-1964)
at 2 towers in Wexford County, for average of 88 individuals/tower/year; 21
species of warblers accounted for 39% of the total kill. A minimum of 6,504
individuals of 76 species were killed in fall (1959-1964) at 7 towers in Ingham,
Kent, and Wexford counties, for average of 155 individuals/tower/year; 27
species of warblers accounted for 67% of the total kill.
Carter, J. H., III, and J. F. Parnell. 1976. TV tower kills in eastern North Carolina. Chat 40: 1-9.
Annotated list of 84 species (5,070 birds) tallied on 42 occasions,
September-November 1971-1972, at 2 towers (WECT, Bladen County; WWAY, Brunswick
County). Common Yellowthroat was most numerous species in kills. Also includes
tabular summary of sample (290 individuals of 39 species) of estimated kill of
1,000 birds at WECT, 30 October 1970.
Carter, J. H., III, and J. F. Parnell. 1978. TV tower kills in eastern North Carolina: 1973 through 1977. Chat 42: 67-70.
Irregular monitoring of 2 towers in Bladen County, September-October
1973-1977, revealed 3 large kills at the WECT tower: 600+ individuals of 39
species on 1 October 1973, 3,240+ individuals of 41 species on 5 September 1974,
and 306+ individuals of 21 species on 28 October 1975; warblers of 28 species
accounted for 75% of the casualties (with American Redstart, Ovenbird, Common
Yellowthroat, and Black-and-white Warbler being the most abundant). Infrequent
visits to the WWAY tower "revealed no evidence of significant mortality."
Cooley, C. D. 1977. Television tower casualties at Huntsville [Alabama]: fall, 1976. Alabama Birdlife 25(3-4): 14-15.
Notes mortality of 42 individuals of 18 species (with Bay-breasted and
Magnolia warblers most numerous) at WHNT tower, Madison County, 30 September-31
Cox, J. 1997 (22 September). Blinking lights mark scenes of death for birds. Tallahassee [Florida] Democrat Online. <http://vh1421.infi.net/features/environ/cox/0922cox.htm>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
This exceptionally well-written popular account of the impacts of
communication towers on birds draws on the research conducted at the WCTV tower
in Leon County, Florida. Cox, a biologist with the Florida Fresh Water Fish and
Game Commission, states that "A widely referenced estimate places the average
death toll at 2,500 birds per tower per year."
Crawford, R. L. 1974. Bird casualties at a Leon County, Florida, TV tower: October 1966-September 1973. Bull. Tall Timbers Res. Sta. 18, 27 pp.
Brief discussion and tabular summary (by month) of 5,550 individuals of 148
species found dead at WCTV tower, including 4 species not recorded 1955-1966.
Crawford, R. L. 1976a. Willow and Alder flycatcher records at a north Florida TV tower. Florida Field Nat. 4: 1-4.
Discussion of status based on 19 specimens (9 Willow and 10 Alder) from WCTV
tower in Leon County, 1957-1974.
Crawford, R. L. 1976b. Some old records of TV tower kills from southwest Georgia. Oriole 41: 45-51.
Kills at WALB tower near Doerum, Colquitt County, on 3 nights in fall (365
individuals of 35 species, 56% Red-eyed Vireos; 12-13 September 1959, 7-8
September, and 17-18 October 1962) are compared with kill on same nights at WCTV
tower in Leon County, Florida. Discusses "records of interest" of 9 species at
Doerun tower, and mentions 2 kills in 1962 at WRBL-WTVM tower near Cusseta,
Chattahoochee County (18 birds on 23 April and 60 birds on 18 October).
Crawford, R. L. 1980. Wind direction and the species composition of autumn TV tower kills in northwest Florida. Auk 97: 892-895.
Presents data on number of individuals of 53 species killed at 4 TV towers
during varying time periods spanning years 1956-1976. The most abundant species,
in aggregate, were Red-eyed Vireo, Common Yellowthroat, Louisiana Waterthrush,
and American Redstart.
Crawford, R. L. 1981a. Bird kills at a lighted man-made structure: often on nights close to a full moon. Am. Birds. 35: 913-914.
In response to Verheijen's (1981a, 1981b) claims that tower kills rarely
occur on nights close to a full moon, Crawford examined 25 years of data
(1956-1980) from the WCTV tower in Leon County, Florida, and identified 683
nights on which 10 or more birds were killed. Bird-kill nights were found to be
non-randomly distributed among the 20 moon-phase categories examined by
Crawford, a seeming contradiction of Verheijen's hypothesis that moon phase
affects the likelihood of tower kills. However, a re-examination of the data
presented by Crawford (Table 1) indicates that 43% of the kills occurred during
the darkest one-third of the lunar cycle) compared to 32% during the lightest
one-third of the lunar cycle. The relative importance of moon phase and weather
conditions in tower kills would thus appear to warrant additional study.
Crawford, R. L. 1981b. Bird casualties at a Leon County, Florida, TV tower: a 25-year migration study. Bull. Tall Timbers Res. Sta. 22, 30 pp.
Species accounts briefly discuss numbers and seasonal occurrences of 189
species (totaling 42,384 individuals) found dead at WCTV tower, October
Crawford, R. L. 1981c. Weather, migration, and autumn bird kills at a north Florida TV tower. Wilson Bull. 93: 189-195.
Tower kill data (1962-1966) from the 308-m WCTV tower in Leon County show 4
consistent patterns: (1) kills occurred on virtually every night (93% of 420),
but large kills were relative rare events (>50 birds on 11% of nights and
>100 birds on 3%); (2) greater numbers of birds were killed on north winds
than on south winds (22 vs 13 birds/night); (3) large kills were generally
associated with passage of cold fronts (94% of 36 nights with kill >50
birds); and (4) greater numbers of birds were killed during overcast skies than
clear skies (31 vs 7 birds/night).
Crawford, R. L. 1989. Another consideration of Yellow-billed Cuckoo casualties at a Tennessee TV tower. Migrant 60: 72-73.
Contrary to Hamel (1987), considers that the abnormally high number of
cuckoos recorded by Goodpasture (1987), August-November 1985, was result of
direct collision with tower.
Crawford, R. L., and W. W. Baker. 1981. Bats killed at a north Florida television tower: a 25-year record. J. Mammal. 62: 651-652.
Summary of information on 7 species (54 individuals) found dead on 49
occasions at the WCTV tower in Leon County, Florida, 1955-1980.
Davis, W. M. 1987. Avian mortality during spring migration at a north Mississippi television tower. Mississippi Kite 16: 5-7.
On morning of 21 April 1984, ca. 200 dead birds were found beneath the 397-m
WHAV-TV transmitter near Oxford. Of 26 birds of 11 species collected at random,
16 (61%) were warblers.
Dillon, J. n.d. Why birds hate Seinfeld. Audubon Reports. <http://magazine.audubon.org/report2.html>. Accessed 3 June 1998.
After noting the dangers of TV and other types of communication towers to
migrating birds, and citing a proposal by the Federal Communications Commission
to make it easier for such towers to be built in environmentally sensitive
areas, author urges the FCC to conduct an environmental assessment of the
impacts of the nation's estimated 75,000 towers on birds.
Dinsmore, J. J., R. B. Renken, and J. P. Schaufenbuel. 1983. TV tower kill in central Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 53: 91-93.
Reports kill of 384 birds of 33 species at 2,100-ft Alleman TV tower, Polk
County, 14 September 1982.
Dinsmore, S., E. Munson, J. J. Dinsmore, and G. M. Nelson. 1987. Two television tower kills in Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 57: 5-8.
Tabular summary of 984 birds of 47 species found dead at towers in Alleman
(Polk County) and Hinton (Plymouth County), 21-22 September 1985. Warblers
comprised 65-76%, and vireos 13-21%, of the kill (with Ovenbird, Red-eyed vireo,
and Nashville Warbler the 3 most abundant species).
Dunn, E. H. 1993. Bird mortality from striking residential windows in winter. J. Field Ornithol. 64: 302-309.
Documents incidence of mortality using data gathered by volunteer
participants in the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology's Feederwatch Program, and
suggests that mortality in North America due to striking plate glass windows is
on the order of about 100 million birds annually.
Elder, W. H. 1982. Television can be hazardous for [Missouri] warblers! Bluebird (St. Louis) 49(4): 9.
Of 34 individuals of 17 species killed by hitting TV tower in Columbia, 15
September 1982, 12 were Red-eyed Vireo and 19 were warblers (13 species).
Ellis, C. D. 1997. Back to the tower: tower-killed birds at a Putnam County, West Virginia, television transmission tower. Redstart 64: 111-113.
On 16 September 1995, 6 individuals of 6 species were found at WCHS-TV tower,
and 0 individuals at WVAH-TV tower, both located on Coal Mountain, Putnam
County. Also includes tabular summary of 280 individuals of 27 species
(Swainson's Thrush and Ovenbird predominating at 20.4% and 18.6%, respectively)
found dead on 5 dates (16 September 1965, 5 and 27 September and 3 October 1966,
and 7 October 1967) at a TV tower on Coal Mountain.
Elmore, J. B., Jr., and B. Palmer-Ball Jr. 1991. Mortality of migrant birds at two central Kentucky TV towers. Kentucky Warbler 67: 67-71.
Report total kill of 1,939 individuals (range 55-1,576) of 70 species (range
16-59) on 5 nights (2 in spring, 3 in fall), 1983-1990. Most frequent species in
kill were Ovenbird, Bay-breasted Warbler, Tennessee Warbler, Magnolia Warbler,
and Red-eyed Vireo.
Environmental News Service. 1997 (20 August). High rise lights kill millions of birds. <http://envirolink.org/environews/ens/newsfeed/aug19-1997-01.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
Brief overview of the problems caused by lighted office buildings, including
mention of fact that 111 species have been found dead in Toronto's financial
district (with White-throated Sparrow and Ovenbird the most abundant), and the
Bird-Friendly Building program launched in fall 1976 by the World Wildlife Fund
Canada and the Fatal Light Awareness Program (see World Wildlife Fund Canada
1996c, 1998). FLAP founder Michael Mesure is quoted as saying that an estimated
"100 million birds die each year [in North America] when they collide with
Feehan, J. 1963. Destruction of birdlife in Minnesota--Sept[ember] 1963. II. Birds killed at the Ostrander television tower. Flicker 35: 111-112.
Mortality estimated at 1,000-1,500 individuals, 20 September. Three species
(Swainson's Thrush, Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo) comprised 62% of the 248
individuals of 28 species collected.
FLAP [Fatal Light Awareness Program]. n.d. Migration periods for birds commonly found to collide with lighted structures in Toronto [Ontario]. <http://www.flap.org/Frequent.htm>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
Bar graph depicts weekly periods in which each of 15 species are most likely
to collide with lighted structures in spring (15 March-15 June) and fall (15
August-15 November). The source of the data used to construct the graph is not
FLAP [Fatal Light Awareness Program]. n.d. 1997 FLAP data. <http://www.flap.org/flap97.htm>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
For each of 84 species, lists number of individuals found alive (866) and
dead (1002); White-throated Sparrow, Ovenbird, and Brown Creeper were most
frequently reported. The source of the data is not stated, but it presumably
reflects birds found at the base of lighted buildings in Toronto, Ontario.
FLAP [Fatal Light Awareness Program]. 1998 (19 May). FLAP home page. <http://www.flap.org>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
Provides background information on the Fatal Light Awareness Program. FLAP, a
registered charity based in Toronto, Ontario, is dedicated to reducing mortality
of birds due to collisions with lighted structures. Topics include Tower kill,
Injury, FLAP to the rescue, What you can do to help, Preparing for migration
season, If you find an injured bird, Rehabilitation centres, and How tenants can
Goodpasture, K. A. 1984. Television tower casualties, Nashville, Tennessee 1976-1983. Migrant 55: 53-57.
Median annual fall (1 September-31 October) mortality was 200 individuals
(range 84-339) of 28 species (range 20-34) at the WSMV (formerly WSM) tower, and
42 individuals (range 8-114) of 18 species (range 7-35) at WKRN (formerly WNGE)
tower. Comparable figures for 1968-1975 are 718 individuals (range 56-5,537) of
50 species (range 20-73) at the WSMV tower, and 122 individuals (range 55-307)
of 34 species (range 21-51). Warblers comprised 80% of the total. The apparent
84% decline in bird mortalities from 1968-1975 to 1976-1983 might be related to
(a) vagaries of weather, (b) general declines in overall bird populations, or
(c) differential scavenging of carcasses.
Goodpasture, K. A. 1986. Nashville, Tennessee, television tower casualties, 1984. Migrant 57: 70-72.
Reports fall tally of 215 individuals of 34 species (most abundant being
Tennessee Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo, Bay-breasted Warbler, and Ovenbird) at WSMV.
Goodpasture, K. A. 1987. 1985 tower casualties at WSMV, Nashville, Tennessee. Migrant 58: 85-86.
Recovery of 67 birds of 26 species (40% Yellow-billed Cuckoos) compares to
5-yr (1973-1977) median of 93 birds (range 56-435).
Graber, R., and J. Graber. 1980. Comparison of [Illinois] bird kill and census. Illinois Audubon Bull. 192: 20-23.
Of 283 individuals of 19 species found dead at TV tower near Fithian, 24
October 1979, 85% were Yellow-rumped Warblers. Although 7 of 8 species
represented by more than 1 individual at tower kill were also encountered in
census of 19-ha plot of forest-edge habitat in Altherton County (40 km from
tower), there was no correlation between numbers of night-migrating forest birds
detected in the 2 data sets.
Graber, R. R., and W. W. Cochran. 1960. Evaluation of an aural record of nocturnal migration. Wilson Bull. 72: 253-273.
In Champaign County, Illinois, amplified calls of nocturnal migrants were
recorded nightly (total of 175 nights, fall and spring 1957-1959) on tape
recorder controlled by automatic timer that sampled 1.5 min of each 10-min
period during night, providing 1.5-hr tape representing 10 hrs. Compare audio
record with tower kills and field observations.
Green, J. C. 1963. Destruction of birdlife in Minnesota--Sept[ember] 1963. III. Notes on kills at Duluth on September 18/19. Flicker 35: 112-113.
Reports finding 111 individuals of 20 species (nearly all vireos and
warblers) at base of airport ceilometer and WDSM-TV tower; Ovenbird and
Bay-breasted Warbler were most abundant species.
Greenberg, L. M. 1998 (Wednesday, 10 June). Migratory birds and office towers are a pretty bad mix. They go bump in the night. In Toronto [Ontario] now there is a big FLAP about that. Wall Street J. 231(112): A1(Column 4) and A8(Columns 1-2).
This popular account reviews the success of the Fatal Light Awareness Program
(100 buildings are now enrolled), while pointing out the reluctance of some
building owners and tenants to participate in this voluntary effort to reduce
Grunbaum, A., and L. Orgel. 1998 (4 January). Birds and prisons--an unlikely pairing. Friends of Grays Harbor. <http://www.wln.com/~crc/issues2/foghbirds.html>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
FOGH, a non-profit organization whose mission is to "foster and promote the
economic, biological and social uniqueness of a healthy Grays Harbor Estuary,"
publicly opposes a proposal by the Washington Department of Corrections to build
a facility on the shore of Grays Harbor because of the potential risk to over
500,000 shorebirds that use the estuary. This document, apparently created to
help bolster the FOGH position, includes 18 excerpts from Ogden (1996) that
highlight the hazards of lights to birds, including complete literature
Hamel, P. B. 1987. An improbable number of Yellow-billed Cuckoo casualties at a Tennessee TV tower. Migrant 58: 86-89.
Examines potential causes of apparent high mortality at WSMV (Goodpasture
1987) and concludes that it was most likely due to selective predation by owls,
not collision with tower.
Hamel, P. B. 1989. Reply to Crawford. Migrant 60: 74.
Reply to Crawford (1989) notes that probability of recovering 27
Yellow-billed Cuckoos in a single season at WSMV-TV tower in Nashville,
Tennessee, assuming conditions in 1985 were representative of those in
1960-1984, was <1 in 100,000. Concludes that some factor besides simple
collision with tower was involved.
Hebert, E., E. Reese, and L. Mark. 1995 (October). Avian collision and electrocution: an annotated bibliography. California Energy Commission.
<http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/avian_bibliography.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
This on-line bibliography includes 468 citations, mostly for the period
1876-1992, and mainly from the United States. Citations are listed
alphabetically by author. Cross-referenced subject, taxonomic, geographic, and
author indexes are especially useful. For example, under the category of
Collision Mortality, there are 32 key-coded references to "Buildings, windows"
and 176 to "Towers, radio, TV, and other."
Herron, J. 1997. Television transmission tower kills in Lewis County, West Virginia. Redstart 64: 114-117.
A total of 841 individuals of 58 species was found dead on 94 visits to a
529-ft TV tower, August-October 1978-1986. The 3 most abundant species
(Bay-breasted Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush) represented 24% of the
total, while warblers (28 species) collectively accounted for most (64%) of the
mortality. Mean indices of annual mortality ranged from 2-54 individuals/visit
(median = 10). In fall 1996, 13 individuals of 8 species were found in 7 visits
Hoving, E. J., and S. G. Sealy. 1987. Species and age composition of a sample of birds killed in fall 1979 at a Manitoba TV tower. Prairie Nat. 19: 129-133.
Janssen, R. B. 1963. Destruction of birdlife in Minnesota--Sept[ember] 1963. I. Birds killed at the Lewisville television tower. Flicker 35: 110-111.
Of 924 individuals of 47 species found dead at KEYC-TV tower in Watonwan
County, 21 September, most (77%) were vireos and warblers, with Red-eyed Vireo
being most abundant species.
Johnston, D. W. 1976. Races of Palm Warblers killed at a Florida TV tower. Florida Field Nat. 4: 22-24.
The western race (palmarum) greatly outnumbered the eastern race
(hypochrysea) among the 369 individuals killed at the WCTV tower in
Leon County, 1961-1966: 89% palmarum, 6% intermediate, and 5%
hypochrysea in fall; with corresponding values of 74%, 16%, and 10% in
Kale, H. W., II. 1975. Extension of winter range of Telmatodytes palustris waynei to Georgia and Florida. Auk 92: 806-807.
Reports 7 specimens collected in McIntosh, Georgia, 1958-1961, and 14 birds
found dead at base of TV tower in Leon County, Florida.
Kemper, C. 1996. A study of bird mortality at a west central Wisconsin TV tower from 1957-1995. Passenger Pigeon 58: 219-235.
Daily monitoring of a 1,000-ft tower near Eau Claire in spring (April-June)
and fall (August-October) revealed a total mortality of 121,560 individuals of
123 species, or about 3,200 individuals/year. The 3 most common species
encountered in both spring and fall were Red-eyed Vireo, Ovenbird, and Tennessee
Warbler. Provides information on seasonal occurrence, and discusses apparent
temporal changes (increases and decreases) in the numbers of different species
Klem, D., Jr. 1989. Bird-window collisions. Wilson Bull. 101: 606-620.
Survey reveals that about 25% (225) of 917 bird species in the U.S. and
Canada have been documented striking windows. Birds fail to see windows as
barriers and are vulnerable to them wherever they mutually occur.
Klem, D., Jr. 1990. Collisions between birds and windows: mortality and prevention. J. Field Ornithol. 61: 120-128.
The annual mortality resulting from window collisions in the United States is
estimated to be at least 98 million, and possibly as many as 976 million, birds.
Offers solutions for preventing collisions.
Klem, D., Jr. 1991. Glass and bird kills: an overview and suggested planning and design methods of preventing a fatal hazard. Pp. 99-104 in L. W. Adams and D. L. Leedy (Eds.), Wildlife conservation in metropolitan environments. Natl. Inst. Urban Wildl. Symp. Ser. 2.
Reviews the bird-glass issue and recommends that the building industry give
serious consideration to the mortality of birds due to collision with glass
Koneke, M. A. 1992. Yellow Rail and Sharp-tailed Sparrow in Oswego County [New York]. Kingbird 42: 14.
A Yellow Rail found dead after colliding with tower, 9 October 1991, is
second record (first this century) for Oneida Lake Basin region; and a
Sharp-tailed Sparrow collected on same date is one of few records for this
Larkin, R. P. 1988a. Why are migrating birds killed at tall structures? Illinois Audubon Bull. 226: 20-21.
Larkin, R. P. 1988b. Why are migrating birds killed at tall structures? Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Rep. 277: 1-2.
Larkin, R. P., and B. A. Frase. 1988. Circular paths of birds flying near a broadcasting tower in cloud. J. Comp. Psychol. 102: 90-93.
Laskey, A. R. 1961. [Tennessee] TV tower casualties. Inland Bird Banding News 33: 1.
Reports kill of 3,683 birds of 77 species at 2 towers in Nashville, fall
1960; 5 species (Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo, Tennessee Warbler, Magnolia Warbler,
Gray Catbird) accounted for 63% of kill.
Leenhouts, W. P. 1987. Osprey killed by lightning at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Florida Field Nat. 15: 22-23.
Immature in nest located atop 20-m steel USGS bilby tower apparently struck
and killed by lightning. Notes that 10 of 23 active nests on Merritt Island NWR
were on metal human-made structures (which may be especially susceptible to
lightning strikes) and suggests that lightning mortality may be more frequent
MacKay, B. K. 1997. Birds on a collision course. Mainstream 28(2). Animal Protection Institute., Sacramento, California. <http://www.api4animals.org/Collision.htm>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This well-written essay explores the impacts of windows, buildings, and
lighted human-made structures on migrating birds, and briefly mentions the
efforts of the Fatal Light Awareness Program; also suggests ways to prevent
birds from hitting windows or lighted structures.
Maehr, D. S., and J. Q. Smith. 1988. Bird casualties at a central Florida power plant: 1982-1986. Florida Field Nat. 16: 57-64.
Marsden, J. E., T. C. Williams, V. Krauthamer, and H. Krauthamer. 1980. Effects of nuclear power plant lights on migrants. J. Field Ornithol. 51: 315-318.
The lights associated with the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Plymouth, Massachusetts, did not appear to regularly disrupt the orientation of nocturnal passerine migrants, as headings and tracks of birds passing the Station (as determined by radar) differed significantly from a control area on only 1 of 9 nights, 20-20 May 1976.
McCrary, M. D., R. L. McKernan, R. W. Schreiber, W. D. Wagner, and T. C. Sciarrotta. 1986. Avian mortality at a solar energy power plant. J. Field Ornithol. 135-141.
Over a 40-week period (May-June 1982 and September 1982-May 1983), a total of
70 individuals of 26 species were found dead at Solar One (the world's largest
solar energy power plant), located in the Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County,
California. Most (81%) of the birds died from collisions with physical
structures. The impact of this mortality on the local bird population was
considered minimal (0.6-0.7%/week).
Mollhoff, W. 1979. [Nebraska] Tower kills. Nebraska Bird Rev. 47: 58.
Reports kill of 80 birds of 24 species in 1978 (apparently both spring and
fall) at KCNA-TV tower near Albion.
Mollhoff, W. J. 1983. [Nebraska] Tower kills. Nebraska Bird Rev. 51: 92.
Reports kill of 320 birds of 42 species at KCNA-TV tower near Albion, 12-16
Mosman, D. 1975. Bird casualties at Alleman, I[ow]a, TV tower. Iowa Bird Life 45: 88-90.
Known mortality at 2,000-ft tower in fall 1973 and spring and fall 1974
totaled 3,321 birds of 76 species. Red-eyed Vireo was most abundant species,
comprising 21% (724) of birds recovered; 26 species of warblers made up 60%
(2,102) of kill.
National Wind Technology Center. n.d. Avian literature database. <http://www.nrel.gov/wind/avianlit.html.> National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Department of Energy. Accessed 9 June 1998.
This updated version of Hebert et al. (1995) includes a convenient search
feature. As examples, a search on the key word "TV tower" retrived 169
citations, a search on "windows" retrieved 34 citations, a search on "lights"
retrived 33 citations, and a search on "Florida" retrived 31 citations.
Nicholson, C. P. 1984. September 1984 tower kill in Knox County, Tennessee. Migrant 55: 86.
A total of 749 individuals of 34 species were found dead at the base of
television towers on Sharp's Ridge and Zachary Ridge, with the most abundant
species being Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, and Black-and-white
Warbler. This is the first large tower kill reported from the Knoxville area
since 1979 (see Turner and Davis 1980).
Norman, J. L. 1975. Birds killed at a TV tower near Coweta, Oklahoma. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 8: 25-27.
Norman, J. L. 1982. The Coweta [Oklahoma] TV tower kill. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 15: 19-22.
Tabular summary of number of individuals of 81 species recorded in each of 5
consecutive fall seasons, 1974-1978, at this site in Wagoner County. Highlights
include second and third Oklahoma specimens of Yellow Rail (1976), first
Oklahoma specimen of Golden-winged Warbler (1974), first Oklahoma fall specimens
of Bay-breasted Warbler (1976 and 1978), and fifth Oklahoma specimen of
Sharp-tailed Sparrow (1974).
Norman, J. L. 1987. Synopsis of birds killed at the Coweta, Oklahoma, TV tower, 1974-1984. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 20: 17-22.
Ogden, L. P. 1996. Collision course: the hazards of lighted structures and windows to migrating birds. World Wildlife Fund Canada and the Fatal Lights Awareness Program. 46 pp. Available for $10.00 from WWF Canada, Suite 504 - 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario, M4P 2Z7.
Documents the hazards posed to birds by these human-made features of the
Ornithological Council, The. 1988a. Communication towers and avian mortality. <http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/NOAC98Res.html#radio>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This joint resolution from the 1988 North American Ornithological Conference
(approved by the American Ornithologists Union, the Association of Field
Ornithologists, the Cooper Ornithological Society, and the Wilson Ornithological
Society) (a) urges the Federal Aviation Administration to "endorse studies
involving experiments toward finding lighting systems for towers that reduce
avian mortality," (b) encourages the communications industry to "voluntarily
reduce the number of new towers by co-locating new transmitters on existing
towers," and (c) encourages the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to work with the
FAA and the Federal Communications Commission to "study the magnitude of the
problem . . . and to develop a national plan to minimize collisions of birds
Ornithological Council, The. 1988b. Design or modification of buildings and other structures to reduce collisions by birds.
<http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/NOAC98Res.html#window>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This joint resolution from the 1988 North American Ornithological Conference
(approved by the American Ornithologists Union, the Association of Field
Ornithologists, the Cooper Ornithological Society, and the Wilson Ornithological
Society) encourages the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to "make research related
to bird-window collisions and their avoidance high on its priority list and to
encourage the Biological Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey to
carry out the needed research."
Palmer-Ball, B., Jr., and L. Rauth. 1990. Tower mortality in Henderson County [Kentucky]. Kentucky Warbler 66: 97-98.
On 21 September 1990, 128 individuals of 20 species (mostly Ovenbird) were
found dead at a TV tower in Henderson, while no mortality was noted at a tower
located just 3 miles away.
Parmalee, P. W., and M. D. Thompson. 1963. A second kill of birds at a television tower in central Illinois. Illinois Audubon Bull. 128: 13-15.
Report kill of 219 birds of 31 species at 999-ft WICS-TV tower in Sangamon
County, 13-14 September 1963; 5 species (Ovenbird, Tennessee Warbler, Red-eyed
Vireo, Northern Waterthrush, Bobolink, in decreasing order of abundance) made up
66% of total.
Pfand, A. 1996 (November/December). Fatal light. The Storm-Petrel 17(6), Kalmiopsis Audubon Society, Port Orford, Oregon. <http://www.harborside.com/cc/audubon/petrl6-6.htm#alice>. Accessed 8 June 1998.
This brief popular account mentions the attraction of Leach's Storm-Petrels
to lighted structures in coastal Curry County, Oregon.
Remy, R. J., Jr. 1974. Birmingham [Alabama] tower casualties--fall, 1974. Alabama Birdlife 22(3-4): 9-10.
Reports total of 29 individuals of 14 species at 2 towers (WAPI and WBRC), 9
Remy, R. J., Jr. 1975. Birmingham [Alabama] television tower casualties, 1975. Alabama Birdlife 23(3-4): 18-19.
Reports 39 individuals of 16 species in spring (15 March-23 May) and 25
individuals of 11 species in fall (9 September-7 November) at 2 towers (WAPI and
Roberts, R. E., and C. V. Tamborski. 1993. Blackpoll Warbler mortality during fall migration at a tower in southeastern Florida. Florida Field Nat. 21: 118-120.
A total of 617 individuals of 9 species (including 586 Blackpoll Warblers)
was found dead at a 191-m U.S. Coast Guard LORAN tower in Martin County on 8
October 1981. This represents the largest reported kill of Blackpoll Warblers
due to striking a structure. Literature cited by the author reveals that the
Blackpoll Warbler is rarely represented in tower kills in Florida during fall
(e.g., 5 in 25 years at a tower in Leon County; 10 in 3 years at a tower in
Orange County; 3 in 11 years at a structure in Brevard County). The only other
reported large kill was 322 birds found at a sructure in Brevard County on
Sealy, S. 1986. Fall migration of Northern Orioles: an analysis of tower-killed individuals. N. Am. Bird Bander 12: 43-45.
Based on examination of preserved specimens of 47 individuals killed on 23
different dates, 1957-1979, in 5 States and 2 Provinces; only 4 of the 23 kills
involved 3 or more individuals.
Stevenson, H. M., and W. W. Baker. 1970. Records of new avian subspecies in Florida. Florida Nat. 41: 69-70.
Describe first Florida specimen records of 25 subspecies of 23 species, many
collected at WCTV TV tower in Leon County, 1952-1968.
Stoddard, H. L., Sr. 1961. Bird casualties at a Leon County, Florida, TV tower: 1955-1961. Bull. Tall Timbers Res. Sta. 1, 94 pp.
Annotated list discusses relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of 149
species (totaling 15,251 individuals) found dead at WCTV tower, October
Stoddard, H. L., Sr., and R. A. Norris. 1967. Bird casualties at a Leon County, Florida, TV tower: an eleven-year study. Bull. Tall Timbers Res. Sta. 8, 104 pp.
Annotated list discusses relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of 170
species (totaling 29,451 individuals) found dead at WCTV tower, October
Strnad, F. 1962. Birds killed at the KROC-TV tower, Ostrander, Minnesota. Flicker 34: 7-9.
Reports recovery of 1,547 birds of 66 species on 3 dates (4 and 12 September
and 9 October 1961) at this 1,314-ft tower.
Strnad, F. V. 1975. More bird kills at KROC-TV tower, Ostrander, Minnesota. Loon 47: 16-21.
The majority of the 3,507 individuals of 84 species salvaged in fall
(1961-1962, 1972-1974) at this site in Filmore County were warblers (26
species). The most abundant species were Ovenbird, Red-eyed Vireo, and
Sutton, G. M. 1980. Subspecies of Savannah Sparrow found in Oklahoma. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. 13: 6-8.
Of 7 birds found dead at TV tower in Wagoner County 27 October 1976, 4 were
nevadensis race (which breeds in western U.S.), 2 were "intergrades
between nevadensis and oblitus" (latter breeding in central
Canada), and 1 was "intergrade of mediogriseus toward oblitus"
(former breeding in New England).
Taylor, W. K. 1981. No longer a bird killer. Florida Nat. 9: 4-5, 10.
Over a 4-year period, a minimum of 9,331 individuals of 90 species was killed
at the 1,500-ft WDBO-WFTV tower near Orlando, Florida, in autumn (1969-1972) and
spring (1970-1973), with most mortality in the autumn. This tower collapsed in
1973 and was replaced by an even taller structure equipped with strobe lights;
for unknown reasons, migrants are "not attracted to the powerful white lights"
of the new tower. The nearby 1,500-ft WSWB-TV tower, with stationary and
blinking red lights, also no longer accounts for big kills, although kills there
were never as large as the ones at WDBO-WFTV.
Taylor, W. K., and B. H. Anderson. 1974. Nocturnal migrants killed at a central Florida TV tower, autumn 1972. Florida Field Nat. 2: 40-43.
In 36 visits (August-November) to WDBO-WFTV tower in Orange County, 1,347
individuals of 49 species were collected. Warblers accounted for 41% of the
species and 89% of the individuals, with 3 species (Common Yellowthroat,
Black-throated Blue Warbler, American Redstart) comprising 72% of total.
Taylor, W. K., and M. A. Kershner. 1986. Migrant birds killed at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), John F. Kennedy Space Center. J. Field Ornithol. 57: 142-154.
From 1971-1981, 5,046 individuals of 62 species were collected at this
facility in Brevard County. Twenty-three spring kills totaled 4,336 individuals
of 47 species, and 16 fall kills totaled 710 individuals of 45 species.; 12 of
the 39 kills (11 in spring, 1 in fall) involved more than 100 individuals.
Warblers accounted for the majority of casualties in both spring (93%) and fall
Telfer, T. C., J. L. Sincock, G. V. Byrd, and J. R. Reed. 1987. Attraction of Hawaiian seabirds to lights: conservation efforts and effect of moon phase. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 15: 406-413.
Between 1978 and 1985, 11,767 Newell's shearwaters, 38 dark-rumped petrels,
and 8 band-rumped storm-petrels were attracted to bright urban lights on Kauai
Island, struck unseen objects, and fell to the ground. Salvage effort has
returned 90% of these birds to the wild. More than 97% of the fallout involved
fledgling birds. Fallout was heaviest during the dark period near the new moon
and was lowest when moonlight intensity was high (an effect that was most
pronounced on the 4 nights around the full moon).
Temme, M., and W. B. Jackson. 1981. Cooling towers as obstacles in bird migrations. Proc. Bird Control Seminar 8: 111-118.
Terrill, S. B., and R. L. Crawford. 1988. Additional evidence of nocturnal migration by Yellow-rumped Warblers in winter. Condor 90: 261-263.
Examination of the number of birds found dead in winter (15 December-20
February) at the 304-m WCTV tower in Leon County, Florida--median of 23
birds/year (range 5-264, n = 8 years, 1956-1966)--suggests that winter migratory
movements are regular but of variable magnitude, with most tower kills
corresponding to passage of major cold fronts.
Turner, L., and M. Davis. 1980. Birds killed at television towers in Knox County [Tennessee]. Migrant 51: 27-29.
On 30 September 1979, 280 individuals of 32 species were found dead at
WATV-TV tower, and 47 individuals of 17 species at WBIR-TV tower, for cumulative
totals of 327 individuals and 33 species. Warblers (20 species) and vireos (5
species) accounted for most of the mortality (65% and 19%, respectively.
Vaughn, C. R. 1977. First Virginia specimen of the Magnificent Frigatebird. Raven 48: 78.
Bird first seen 14 May 1976 was found injured on 17 May 1976, apparently
having collided with steel tower in fog at Chincoteague.
Velie, E. D. 1963. Report of a survey of bird casualties at television towers, ceilometers, and other obstructions. Flicker 35: 79-84.
Provides tabular summary of 51 published studies.
Verheijen, F. J. 1980. The moon: a neglected factor in studies on collisions of nocturnal migrant birds with tall lighted structures and with aircraft. Vogelwarte 30: 305-320.
Verheijen, F. J. 1981a. Bird kills at lighted man-made structures: not on nights close to a full moon. Am. Birds 35: 251-254.
Provides essentially identical analyses and discussion of the 2 data sets
reported by Verheijen (1981b). Additionally, an independent analysis of the
distribution, in relation to moon phase, of 47 nights on which bird kills were
reported in North America, 1886-1975 (from Weir 1976), revealed a significant
clustering between the new moon and the first quarter moon, with none of the
kills occurring on or near the full moon. Suggests that "moonlight, whether
weakend and scattered by clouds or not" can mitigate the disorienting effects of
artificial light sources on migratory birds.
Verheijen, F. J. 1981b. Bird kills at tall lighted structures in the USA in the period 1935-1973 and kills at a Dutch lighthouse in the period 1924-1928 show similar lunar periodicity. Ardea 69: 199-203.
The distribution, in relation to moon phase, of 62 nights on which bird kills
were reported in the United States, 1935-1973, was non-uniform, with a highly
significantly clustering around the new moon; none of the kills occurred on or
near the full moon. Concludes that moon phase may be as important as weather
conditions (e.g., cloud cover, visibility) in determining timing and magnitude
of major kills.
Weir, R. C. 1976. Annotated bibliography of bird kills at man-made obstacles: a review of the state of the art and solutions. Canadian Wildl. Serv., Ontario Region, Ottawa. 85 pp.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1996a. Migratory birds in peril. The threat of collision. <http://www.wwfcanada.org/migration/flap.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
This brief overview of FLAP, the Fatal Light Awareness Program (see Anonymous
1998), claims that more birds are killed annually due to collisions with tall
buildings in North America alone than died as a result of the Exxon
Valdez oil spill.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1996b. Migratory birds in peril. Collision course: the hazards of lighted structures and windows to migrating birds. <http://www.wwfcanada.org/migration/report.html>. Accessed 2 June 1998.
This executive summary of the FLAP report (see Ogden 1996) notes that a
minimum of 1,818 birds were killed annually since 1993 by striking lighted
buildings in downtown Toronto, Canada, and that a single tall building in
Chicago, Illinois, caused an average of 1,478 bird mortalities annually over a
period of 14 consecutive years.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1996c. WWF/FLAP Bird-friendly building program. <http://www.wwfcanada.org/migration/12step.html>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
This joint effort of the World Wildlife Fund and the Fatal Light Attraction
Program is a 12-step program for reducing migratory bird collisions with
brightly lighted buildings.
World Wildlife Fund Canada. 1998. The bird-friendly building program, Toronto.
<http://www.wwfcanada.org/wwf_international.htm#flap>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
A slightly different version of World Wildlife Fund Canada (1996c), although
the 12 steps remain virtually unchanged.
World Wildlife Fund Canada (J. Levita). 1997 (19 August). Time to turn out the office lights at night: migratory bird season has begun. Canada NewsWire. <http://www.newswire.ca/releases/August1997/19/c3223.html>. Accessed 5 June 1998.
Notes that more than 80 office towers in Toronto are participating in FLAP's
"Bird-Friendly Building Program" (see World Wildlife Fund Canada 1996c, 1998).
Urges office workers to turn off lights before leaving at end of day, or to draw
the blinds and use task lighting if working at night, to prevent collisions.
Wylie, B. 1977. Bird kill at Chestnut Ridge [West Virginia]. Redstart 44: 65.
Reports 75 individuals of 21 species (36% Ruby-crowned Kinglet) found dead at
base of 100-ft fire tower at Cooper's Rock SF, 20 October 1975.
Wylie, W. L. 1966. [West Virginia] Migration mishap. Redstart 33: 102-103.
Reports kill of "at least a truckload" of birds due to collision with
microwave communication tower in Upshur County, 24-25 September 1965. Of 81
birds of 26 species examined, 60% were wood warblers (with Blackpoll Warbler and
Ovenbird being most abundant of 14 species).
Young, E. A., B. M. O'Brien, and S. Martin. 1994. Preliminary report on bird mortality at several transmitting towers in south-central Kansas. Horned Lark 21: 10 (Abstract only).