MIGRATORY SONGBIRD CONSERVATION


Table of Contents


INTRODUCTION

WHAT YOU CAN DO

GET INVOLVED

PARTICIPATE IN INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS

SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT MIGRATORY BIRDS




INTRODUCTION

Each spring and fall the changes in our seasons are marked by massive movements of birds - migration.

In the fall, more than 350 species of birds leave for Mexico, the Caribbean, Central and South America, traveling thousands of miles to their winter homes.

Then as early as February and March, the miraculous happens again - the migrants begin their return. It's hard to imagine spring, summer or fall without the color, sounds and drama of our migratory birds.

Few of us think about what we can do to help these songbirds survive their grueling trip, and the stresses that await them - breeding and rearing their young.

Perhaps it's because only a few of the migrants are common in our suburban backyards. Some have names many of us recognize - the ruby-throated hummingbird, chimney swift, purple martin, gray catbird, wood thrush and northern oriole. Others may be familiar to the more serious birdwatchers - the ruddy turnstone, yellow-bellied cuckoo, common nighthawk, yellow bellied flycatcher, scarlet tanager, bobolink, red-eyed vireo and Cape May warbler. Collectively, these birds are known as neotropical migrants because they nest in Canada and the United States, and winter in Mexico and points south.

During the 1980's, scientists observed a decline in numbers of migratory birds. What happened to the wood thrushes and cerulean warblers that breed in the large northeastern forests? Where are the hermit and Townsend's warblers of old growth forests; the dickcissels and bobolinks of our grasslands; the prairie warblers and yellow-breasted chats of our shrublands; and the yellow-billed cuckoos and willow flycatchers that nest in trees bordering our western streams?

Ornithologists and backyard bird watchers noticed a similar decline in some populations of common flickers, meadowlarks, field sparrows and belted kingfishers. These "short distance" migrants breed in the United States and Canada, and generally winter north of the Mexican border.

What has happened to these birds? Habitat loss and degradation is part of the problem. Habitat needed for food and shelter during the winter months is disappearing in Latin America. In the United States and Canada there is not enough habitat for some species to nest and raise their young. In some areas where appropriate habitat can be found, it may be too close to human disturbances, or the habitat may be too small. This makes these birds more susceptible to cowbird nest parasitism and predation by crows and jays, problems directly related to changes in land use. (Cowbirds lay their eggs in nests of other birds leaving them to raise cowbird young.)

The hazards we humans create in our backyards, workplaces and public places are also a part of the problem.

What can be done to help migratory birds? The US Fish & Wildlife Service and its counterparts in Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America have joined with environmental organizations, government agencies and concerned citizens on a project whose goal is to ensure the survival of the birds we share - the neotropical migrants. The program is called "Partners in Flight" - "Aves de las Americas."

We urge you to join us. This publication offers a brief introduction to what you can do to help conserve these avian treasures.

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WHAT YOU CAN DO Migratory Songbird Conservation in Action

Know Your Birds

Most people can identify a cardinal and a chickadee at the backyard bird feeder. While these birds are important, Partners in Flight is focusing efforts on a less familiar group of birds.

The first step in helping our neotropical migrants is to learn who they are, what they look like, where they live and how they're threatened.

Read a bird identification book. (The Golden Guide to Birds of North America by Robbins, Zim and Bruun is the easiest field book for beginners.) Look at the pictures. Read the text. Familiarize yourself with the birds you're likely to see in your area.

Contact your state wildlife agency, the US Fish & Wildlife Service, and your local bird club for a list of the neotropical migrants that visit your area.


References:

Robbins, Chandler, B. Bruun and H. Zim. 1983. A Guide to Field Identification: Birds of North America. Western Publishing, New York.

Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.

Peterson, R. T. 1961 Field Guide to Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Peterson, R. T. 1961 Field Guide to Western Birds. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Borror, Donald. Bird Song and Bird Behavior. Dover Publications, New York.

Walton, Richard and R. Lawson. 1989. Birding by Ear. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Ehrlich, Paul, D. Dobkin and D. Wheye. 1988. The Birder's Handbook. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Mead, Christopher. 1983. Bird Migration. Facts on File, New York

Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. 1991. Birds Over Troubled Forests. Washington, D.C.

No matter where you live, there are things you can do to get involved in migratory bird conservation: create and restore habitat, eliminate the use of chemicals that poison birds, enact and enforce free-roaming cat regulations and modify your windows to eliminate bird-window collisions.

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Protect, Create and Restore Habitat

Getting involved in migratory bird conservation here in the United States or in Latin America can be as simple as writing a check, donating equipment or picking up a shovel. Many agencies and organizations that work to protect, create and restore breeding and wintering habitat for migratory birds are participating in Partners in Flight. You can get involved in this international effort by contacting any of the participants listed at the end of this booklet.

If you are willing to pick up a shovel, you can create and restore habitat at home, at your workplace and in your local park or wildlife refuge. You can make any property attractive to birds by offering water, shelter, food and nesting habitat.

Start first by evaluating your property. Keep in mind that a diversity of habitat encourages a larger variety of birds. Noisy water features attract more migratory birds.

Then think about your lawn. How much lawn do you really need? The things we do to keep a lawn green - lawn mowers, herbicides, fungicides and pesticides - can be lethal to birds.

Survey your yard for dead and dying trees. Top them so they don't fall on your house, but leave the standing trunks and make a brush pile with the downed canopy. Dead trees and brush piles provide shelter, nest sites and food (insects) for migrating birds.

Providing water can be as simple as putting out a bird bath or as complicated as installing a pond with a creek and waterfall. Birds are attracted to water features that are shallow (less than 2" deep), clean (hosed out daily, sanitized with hot soapy water and bleach at least weekly) and noisy (the sound of dripping water is a magnet for songbirds). Water features are most effective when placed out in the open, where birds can see predators coming.

If you put out bird feeders, select a safe feeder and keep it clean. Polycarbonate plastic tube feeders are the easiest to clean. Use one kind of seed per feeder, don't use seed mixes. Wash seed, suet and fruit feeders in hot soapy water and chlorine bleach at least once a month. If you use a tray or bowl feeder, plan to sanitize it more often. To be sure your hummingbird feeders do not harm the birds, do what zoos do; wash in hot, soapy water daily.

You don't have to put out a bird feeder to provide food for our neotropical migrants. Landscape your yard with native evergreen and fruiting trees, shrubs, grasses and vines. Design your garden so that your plants flower and fruit throughout the spring, summer and fall.

References:

Planting A Refuge for Wildlife: How to Create A Backyard Habitat for Florida's Birds and Beasts. Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Tallahassee.

Trees, Shrubs and Vines for Attracting Wildlife. by Richard DeGraaf and G.M. Whitman, 1979. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.

Landscaping for Wildlife. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN 55155-4007.

Backyard Bird Feeding; Homes For Birds; Backyard Bird Problems. US Fish & Wildlife Service, Consumer Information Center, 3C, PO Box 100, Pueblo, CO 81002.

American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. by A. C. Martin, H. S. Zim and A. L. Nelson. 1961. Dover, New York.

The Experts Guide to Backyard BirdFeeding. American Backyard Bird Society, PO Box 10046, Rockville, MD 20849.

Invite Birds to Your Home. Conservation Plantings Soil Conservation Service PO Box 2890 Washington, D.C. 20013.

The Hummingbird Garden: Turning Your Garden, Window Box or Backyard into a Beautiful Home for Hummingbirds. By Matthew Tekulshy. Crown Publishers, 1990.

Planting an Oasis for Wildlife. 1986. National Wildlife Federation.

The Backyard Naturalist. by Craig Tufts. 1988. National Wildlife Federation.

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Eliminate the Poisons in Your Yard

"There was a strange stillness. The birds, for example-- where had they gone? Many people spoke of them, puzzled and disturbed. The feeding stations in the backyards were deserted. The few birds seen anywhere were moribund; they trembled violently and could not fly. It was spring without voices."
Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, 1962

Rachel Carson introduced her classic book about the perils of pesticides with those observations in a chapter she called "A Fable for Tomorrow".

"Tomorrow." has arrived. Now, no one would think of using DDT to kill garden insects.

Yet, we assume that the lawn and garden chemicals found on the shelves at hardware stores are safe to use around birds (and people.) Take a close look at the labels. Too many popular pesticides are lethal to birds. And while many pesticides may not kill birds on contact, they can contaminate bird food (insects) and water.

What are the alternatives? Mechanical and biological techniques for pest control provide less hazardous options.

Contact your county USDA Agriculture Extension office and the Environmental protection Agency for information about integrated pest management, biological and chemical pest control safety and pest-resistant plant varieties. For more information contact:

National Coalition Against the Mis-Use of Pesticides 701 E St. SE Washington, DC 20003.

US Environmental Protection Agency (H7505 C), Office of Pesticide Programs Environmental Fate and Effects Division, 401 M St. SW, Washington, DC 20460.

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Cat Predation

Americans keep an estimated 60 million cats as pets. Let's say each cat kills only one bird a year. That would mean that cats kill over 60 million birds (minimum) each year - more wildlife than any oil spill.

Scientific studies actually show that each year, cats kill hundreds of millions of migratory songbirds. In 1990, researchers estimated that "outdoor" house cats and feral cats were responsible for killing nearly 78 million small mammals and birds annually in the United Kingdom.

University of Wisconsin ornithologist, Dr. Santley Temple estimates that 20-150 million songbirds are killed each year by rural cats in Wisconsin alone.

Feline predation is not "natural." Cats were domesticated by the ancient Egyptians and taken throughout the world by the Romans. Cats were brought to North America in the 1800's to control rats. The "tabby" that sits curled up on your couch is not a natural predator and has never been in the natural food chain in the Western Hemisphere.

Cats are a serious threat to fledglings, birds roosting at night and birds on a nest. Research shows that de-clawing cats and bell collars do not prevent them from killing birds and other small animals. For healthy cats and wild birds, cats should not be allowed to roam free.

Work with your local humane society, veterinarians and state wildlife agency to enact and enforce free-roaming cat regulations. For more information:

Free Roaming Cats. American Backyard Bird Society, PO Box 10046, Rockville, MD 20849.

Cats: A Heavy Toll on Songbirds. by Rich Stallcup. Point Reyes Bird Observatory, 4990 Shoreline Hwy., Stinson Beach, CA 94924.

Is there a Killer in Your House? by George Harrison, National Wildlife Magazine (October/November 1992).

Beware of Well-Fed Felines. by Peter Churcher and John Lawton, Natural History Magazine (July 1989).

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Bird-Window Collisions

Contemporary homes and modern office buildings often use insulated and reflective glass to replace walls. These windows may be aesthetically pleasing to humans, but often they are lethal to birds. Unfortunately, many birds cannot distinguish the difference between real sky and a reflection of the sky in a window.

In the United States alone, Dr. Dan Klem of Muhlenberg College estimates that each year during migration 98 to 976 million birds fly full tilt into windows and are fatally injured.

Dr. Klem says we can minimize these collisions by breaking up the reflection on the outside of the window with a non-reflective window coating, window screens, flash tape and bird netting.

Life size animate "scares" (plastic falcons, owls and balloons) and falcon or owl silhouettes attached to windows with suction cups are not effective deterrents.

Planting trees and installing window awnings to block the sun from hitting the window may eliminate some reflection. Putting a bird feeder on or within a few feet of a window helps to slow birds down and lessen the effect of impact.

Migration isn't the only time homeowners have trouble with bird-window collisions. Birds may hit your windows during breeding season and in the winter too. For further information:

Bird-Window Collisions. American Backyard Bird Society, PO Box 10046, Rockville, MD 20849.

Birds and Windows. Bird Bulletin, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850.

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House Sparrows and Starlings

Every Spring, birds that nest in cavities compete with each other for a limited number of nest sites. The neotropical migrants that nest in cavities - purple martins, tree swallows and great-crested flycatchers - have adapted to competition from chickadees, titmice and woodpeckers.

The "rules of competition" changed around the turn of the century when we humans imported two European cavity nesting species: house sparrows and starlings.

House sparrows eliminate nest competitors by attacking the adults and killing the young when they are on the nest. Starlings eliminate nest competitors by taking over cavity nesting sites. Our native birds don't seem to be able to defend themselves from house sparrow and starling attacks. So, if you put up a nest box to help bluebirds, martins, chickadees, titmice, woodpecker, wrens or flycatchers, you must monitor the box and eliminate house sparrows and starlings.

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GET INVOLVED

Educate Yourself and Others

Once you know which neotropical migrants are found in your area, why they're threatened, and what can be done - it's time to do something.

There are many ways to educate yourself and others about the problems facing migratory birds. Read. Join local, national and international conservation organizations. Speak out to your friends, neighbors and homeowner's associations. Get children involved through scout, school and youth group activities.

Work with politicians and businesses to develop conservation strategies that will benefit birds and people who live in your community.

Become politically aware and active: write letters to legislators and the news media. Let your voice be heard.

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Volunteer

Contact local refuges, parks and forests to learn about volunteer opportunities for adults and children. Purchase a copy of the Volunteer Directory (American Birding Association, PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934) for a complete listing of volunteer opportunities for birders.

Join thousands of volunteers participating in local, national and international monitoring programs each year. While several of these programs require considerable ornithological skill, you don't have to be a bird expert to help with others. To learn more, join your local bird club. Take a bird course at your local museum, nature center or zoo.

To get involved in a monitoring program, contact any of the following programs:

Christmas Bird Count,
National Audubon Society,
700 Broadway, New York, NY 100003

Breeding Bird Survey,
National Biological Service, Patuxent Environmental Science Center,
Laurel, MD 20708

North American Migration Count,
PO Box 71, North Beach, MD 20714

Breeding Bird Census, Cornell Laboratory of
Ornithology , 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca,
NY 14850-1999

North American Ornithological Atlas
Committee,
PO Box 157, Cambridge, VT
05444

International Shorebird Survey, Manomet
Bird Observatory, Box 936 Manomet, MA
02345

Hawk Counts, Hawk Migration Association of
North America, PO Box 3482, Lynchburg, VA
24503

Project Tanager, Cornell Laboratory of
Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca,
NY 14580

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PARTICIPATE IN INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS

Work with migratory birds must extend beyond the borders of North America. There are dozens of opportunities to help neotropical bird projects in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.

Contact the following groups for information on how you can contribute to their programs, and how you can help school and youth groups link with children in other countries to exchange letters, drawings and stories about the migratory birds we share.

Herb Raffaele,US Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of International Affairs, Washington, DC 20240

Peter Stangel, National Fish & Wildlife Foundation, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036

George Shillinger, Birdlife International, 1250 24th St. NW #500, Washington, DC 20037

Russell Greenberg, Smithsonian Migratory Bird Program, PO Box 28 Edgewater, MD 21037

Laurie Hunter, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209

Susan Carlson, National Audubon Society, 666 Pennsylvania Ave. SE, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20003

The conservation of migratory birds, and all our natural resources, depends on your concern and involvement. There are so many ways to get involved and contribute. Starting and maintaining a bluebird trail, planting trees to restore habitat and covering "killer" windows are but a few. This booklet is an introduction to some of the things you can do. Once you get started, you're sure to discover many more activities just waiting for the right person to take charge. Choose what works best for you - and just do it!

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SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT MIGRATORY BIRDS

To keep current with efforts in migratory bird conservation, get on the mailing list for the free

Partners in Flight Newsletter (National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036.)


Federal Agencies

US Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Migratory Bird Management, Rm. 634 Arlington Sq., 4401 North Fairfax Dr., Arlington, VA 22203

Pacific Region, Nongame Bird Coordinator, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 911 NE 11th Ave., Portland, OR 97232-4181

Southwest Region, Nongame Bird Coordinator ,US Fish & Wildlife Service, 500 Gold Ave. SW, PO Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 87103

Rocky Mountain Region, Nongame Bird Coordinator, US Fish and Wildlife Service, PO Box 25486, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225

North Central Region, Nongame Bird Coordinator, US Fish & Wildlife Service, 1 Federal Drive, Federal Building, Ft. Snelling, MN 55111-4056

Southeastern Region, Nongame Bird Coordinator, US Fish & Wildlife Service, 1875 Century Blvd., Atlanta, GA 30345

Northeastern Region, Nongame Bird Coordinator, US Fish & Wildlife Service, 300 Westgate Center Dr., Hadley, MA 01035-9589

Alaska, Nongame Bird Coordinator, US Fish & Wildlife Service, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503

US Forest Service, Fish & Wildlife Section, PO Box 96090, Washington, DC 20090-6090

National Park Service, Fish & Wildlife Section, PO Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127

Bureau of Land Management, Non Game Bird Program Manager, 3380 Americana Terrace, Boise, ID 83706

US Agency of International Development, LAC-DR-E, Room 2242, Washington, DC 20523-0010

Dept. of Navy, Natural Resources Manager, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20364

Environmental Protection Agency, H-8105, 401 M St. SW, Washington, DC 20460

USDA Extension Service, National Program Leader, Rm. 3871 South Bldg., Washington, DC 20250

Soil Conservation Service, RMFRES, 3925 E. Mulberry, Ft. Collins, CO 80524-8507

Animal Damage Control, USDA, 6505 Belcrest Rd., Rm. 820, Hyattsville, MD 20782

Bureau of Reclamation, Environmental Service Staff, D-5002, Denver, CO 80225

Tennessee Valley Authority, 17 Ridgeway Rd., Norris, TN 37828

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State Wildlife Agencies

ALABAMA
Div. of Game & Fish, 64N Union St.,
Montgomery 36130

ALASKA
Dept. of Fish and Game, PO Box 25526,
Juneau 99802-5526

ARKANSAS
Game & Fish Comm., Rt. 1 Box 188-A,
Humphrey 72073

ARIZONA
Game & Fish Dept., 2221 W. Greenway Rd.,
Phoenix 85023-4399

CALIFORNIA
Dept. Fish & Game, 1416 Ninth St.,
Sacramento 94244-2090

COLORADO
Div. of Wildlife, 317 W. Prospect,
Ft. Collins 80526

CONNECTICUT
Dept. of Environmental Protection, 79 Elm St.,
Harford 06106-5127

DELAWARE
Div. of Fish and Wildlife, PO Box 1401,
Dover 19903

FLORIDA
Game & Freshwater Fish Comm., 620 S. Meridian St.,
Tallahassee 32399-1600

GEORGIA
Wildlife Resources Div., 2070 U.S. Hwy 278 SE,
Social Circle 30279

HAWAII
Dept. of Natural Resources, 1151 Punchbowl St.,
Honolulu 96813

IDAHO
Fish & Game Dept., 600 South Walnut, PO Box 25,
Boise 83707

ILLINOIS
Dept. Conservation, 524 S. Second St.,
Springfield 62701-1787

INDIANA
Dept. of Natural Resources, 402 W. Washington,
Indianapolis 46204

IOWA
Dept. of Natural Resources, 300 4th St.,
Des Moines 50319-0034

KANSAS
Fisheries & Wildlife Division, Rt. 2, Box 54A,
Pratt 67124

KENTUCKY
Dept. Fish & Wildlife, 1 Game Farm Rd.,
Frankfort 40601

LOUISIANA
Fish & Wildlife Dept., PO Box 98000,
Baton Rouge 70898-9000

MAINE
Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife, 284 State Street, State House Station 41,
Augusta 04333

MARYLAND
Dept. Natural Resources, PO Box 68,
Wye Mills 21679

MASSACHUSETTS
Fisheries & Wildlife, 100 Cambridge St.,
Boston 02202

MICHIGAN
Dept. of Natural Resources
Box 30028, Lansing 48909

MINNESOTA
Dept. of Natural Resources, Box 7, 500 Lafayette Rd.,
St. Paul 55155-4001

MISSISSIPPI
Dept. Wildlife Fisheries & Parks, PO Box 451,
Jackson 39205

MISSOURI
Dept. Conservation, PO Box 180,
Jefferson City 65101

MONTANA
Dept. Fish, Wildlife & Parks, Rt 1, 4210,
Glasgow 59230

NEBRASKA
Game & Parks Commission, PO Box 30370, 2200 N 33rd St.,
Lincoln 68503-1417

NEVADA
Div. of Wildlife, Box 10678, 1100 Valley Rd.,
Reno 89520-0022

NEW HAMPSHIRE
Fish & Game Dept., 2 Hazen Dr.,
Concord 03301

NEW JERSEY
Div. of Fish Game & Wildlife, CN 400,
Trenton 08625

NEW MEXICO
Dept. of Game and Fish, Villagra Bldg., PO Box 25112,
Santa Fe 87504

NEW YORK
Dept. Environmental Conservation,
Game Bird Unit, Delmar 12054-9767

NORTH CAROLINA
Wildlife Resources Commission,
512 N. Salisbury St., Raleigh 27604-1188

NORTH DAKOTA
Game & Fish Dept., 100 N. Bismarck Expwy,
Bismarck 58501-5095

PENNSYLVANIA
Game Commission, 2001 Elmerton Ave.,
Harrisburg 17110-9797

OHIO
Div. of Wildlife, 1840 Belcher Dr., Bldg. G-3,
Columbus 43224-1329

OKLAHOMA
Dept. Wildlife Conservation, PO Box 53465,
Oklahoma City 73152

OREGON
Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, 2501 SW 1st., PO Box 59,
Portland 97207

PUERTO RICO
Dept. of Natural Resources, PO Box 5887,
San Juan 00906

RHODE ISLAND
Div. of Fish & Wildlife, 4808 Tower Hill Rd.,
Wakefield 02879

SOUTH CAROLINA
Dept. of Natural Resources, 1000 Assembly St., P.O. Box 167,
Columbia 29202

SOUTH DAKOTA
Game, Fish & Parks, 523 E. Capitol,
Pierre 57501-3182

TENNESSEE
Wildlife Resources Agency, PO Box 40747,
Nashville 37204

TEXAS
Parks & Wildlife, 4200 Smith School Rd.,
Austin 78744

UTAH
Wildlife Resources, 1596 W. N. Temple,
Salt Lake City 84116-3195

VIRGIN ISLANDS
Natural Resources Dept., PO Box 4399,
St. Thomas 00801

VERMONT
Fish & Wildlife Dept,. 103 S. Main Street,
Waterbury 05676

VIRGINIA
Game & Inland Fisheries, Box 11104,
Richmond 23230-1104

WASHINGTON
Dept. of Wildlife, 600 Capitol Way N.,
Olympia 98501-1091

WEST VIRGINIA
Div. of Natural Resources, 219/250 South, PO Box 67 Ward Rd.,
Elkins 26241

WISCONSIN
Dept. Natural Resources, Box 7921,
Madison 53707-7921

WYOMING
Game & Fish Dept., 5400 Bishop Blvd.,
Cheyenne 82006

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CONSERVATION GROUPS

American Backyard Bird Society,
PO Box 10046, Rockville, MD 20849

American Forest Resource Alliance,
1250 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 200,
Washington, DC 20036

American Ornithologist's Union,
Committee for NIE, 730 11th St. NW,
Washington, DC 20037

Birdlife International, 1250 24th St. NW,
#500, Washington, DC 20037

Colorado Bird Observatory,
13401 Picadilly Rd., Brighton, CO 80601

Conservation International, 1015 18th St.
NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036

Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology,
159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850

Hawk Mountain Sanctuary Association,
Route 2, Box 191, Kempton, PA 19529

Hawkwatch International, PO Box 35706,
Albuquerque, NM 87176-5706

Institute for Bird Populations, PO Box 554,
Inverness, CA 94937

International Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies, 444 N. Capitol St. NW,
#544, Washington DC 20001

Manomet Bird Observatory, PO Box 1770,
Manomet, MA 22345

National Audubon Society, 700 Broadway,
New York, NY 10003-9501

National Fish & Wildlife Foundation,
18th & C Streets NW, Room 2556,
Washington, DC 20240

National Wildlife Federation,
1400 16th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20036-2266

The Nature Conservancy, PO Box 41125,
Baton Rouge, LA 70821

North American Bluebird Society,
P.O. Box 6295, Silver Spring, MD 20906

New Jersey Conservation Foundation,
300 Mendham Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960

Organization for Tropical Studies,
PO Box DM, Duke University,
Durham, NC 27706

Point Reyes Bird Observatory,
4990 Shoreline Highway,
Stinson Beach, CA 94924

The Peregrine Fund,
5666 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709

Rainforest Alliance, 270 Lafayette St.
Suite 512, New York, NY 10012

Smithsonian Institution Migratory Bird Center,
National Zoological Park,
Washington, DC 20008

Tennessee Conservation League,
300 Orlando Ave., Nashville, TN 37209-3200

The Wilderness Society, 900 17th St. NW,
Washington, DC 20006

Wildlife Conservation International,
4424 13th St., Gainesville, FL 32609

Wildlife Management Institute,
5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814

World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th St. NW,
Washington, DC 20037-1175

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